02/10/2014Autonomous Surface Vehicles for Arctic Data Collection
 Brian Anderson, C & C Technologies, Inc. / ASV Services Division

Art Kleiner, C & C Technologies, Inc.

The work on which this paper is based is field data and pilot testing results of variable payloads on Autonomous Surface Vehicles or Unmanned Surface Vehicles (ASVs/USVs), operating in variable industrial environments.  Original field data from Multibeam Echo Sounder, Gyro, Motion Sensor, USBL Sonar, Passive Acoustic Monitoring for marine mammals, and ADCP data collection for ocean currents are all used to illustrate the ASV as a remote data collection platform for remote environments.  By employing diesel electric propulsion and payload power strategies, the systems reviewed in this paper are capable of operation and station keeping in up to 6 knot currents, and do not require sun illumination for solar power, or favorable wind and/or sea conditions for propulsion.
02/07/2011Ice Class AUV Development
  C & C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, Louisiana is spearheading a technical research program to advance the state of the art regarding under ice Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) survey operations. This program, funded by Shell, focuses on five areas of research...
05/20/2010The C-Guardian: A New Platform for Mine Warfare Applications
 C&C Technologies in Lafayette, LA and Autonomous Surface Vehicles, Ltd. in W. Sussex, UK are implementing a multiyear development program with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Geospatial Science and Technology Branch in Stennis Space Center, MS to research Unmanned Semi-Submersible
(USS) technology.
5/3/2010 Utilization of Multibeam Bathymetry and Backscatter for Documenting and Planning
 Advancements in multibeam bathymetry acquisition and processing, especially of backscatter data, now provide additional ways to view these sites. Deepwater archaeologists have begun to utilize bathymetry and backscatter data to develop better understandings of overall site conditions and attributes.
8/5/2009 C-Nav Introduces Next Generation High-Performance GNSS Receiver

The latest addition to the C-Nav range of precise positioning solutions is now available. Delivering unprecedented accuracy, the C-Nav3050 GNSS receiver has been specifically designed to meet the changing needs of users. A simple upgrading path allows customers to tailor the C-Nav3050 from a single frequency receiver to a powerful geodetic quality instrument all in the same hardware.

07/20/2009Deep Technical Depth
  This article appeared in Exploration & Processing,May/June 2009
05/05/2009Sensor Upgrades for Deepwater Survey AUVs
 This article appeared in International Hydrographic & Seismic Search, August 2009 Tony George presents a comparison of data collected with the first and second generation autonomous underwater vehicles.
11/17/2008Satellite-based C-Nav Positioning Provides 10 Centimeter Accuracy Around the World
 This article appeared in the International Dredging Review Publication, September/October 2008

C&C Technologies' C-Nav® Globally Corrected GPS (GcGPS) system provides realtime precise point positioning (PPP) solutions throughout the world. The system provides sub-10-centimeter horizontal accuracy, and better than 15-centimeter vertical accuracy.
09/23/2008AUV Experience: Discoveries and Lessons Learned

This paper was presented by Thomas S. Chance at the Unmanned Underwater Vehicle Showcase September 23, 2008 at the National Oceanography Center, Southampton, UK.

09/20/2008Meeting the Need for Precise Point Positioning Accuracy
 This article appeared in the International Hydrographic & Seismic Search, August 2008

Edwin Danson looks at the impact of upgrades in improved real-time positioning accuracy.
09/19/2008Goodbye Differential GPS: Introducing the New Generation of Precise Point Positioning for Cable Surveys
 This article appeared in the Submarine Telecoms Forum Magazine, July 2008

For those of us who can remember route surveying with Loran C and SatNav, the introduction of GPS and Differential GPS was a dream come true. Gone were the vagaries and uncertainties; in came reliable accuracy and precision transforming vessel positioning from an art form to a science. Since those heady days, DGPS has become a by-word for navigation the norm, not the exception. Accuracy improvements accompanied by cost reductions were all very welcomed by the industry. But technology moves on and the days of the DGPS are passing, replaced by Globally Corrected GNSS (GcGPS) thanks to advances in Precise Point Positioning.
07/11/2008C-Nav GPS: Confidence Through Diversity
 Eliminating the need for multiple vendor solutions.

C-Nav's advanced positioning solutions deliver real-time decimetric Precise Point Positioning to the international maritime community. In addition to the C-Nav NET-1 network, C-Nav GcGPS now offers a second network, C-Nav NET-2, an additional positioning layer providing independent integrity checks and back-up for customers requiring two independent solutions.
04/01/2008'Killer' AUV Sonar System
 This article appeared in the Hydro International Magazine, April 2008

In January 2001, C&C Technologies (C&C), a company based in Lafayette (Louisiana, USA), introduced the first commercially successful autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to the offshore industry. The AUV's survey sensor suite, which included an EdgeTech side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler, performed well in the Gulf of Mexico and Brazilian offshore environments. However, West Africa proved more challenging - particularly for the sub-bottom profiler. C&C soon began searching for alternative technologies to provide better sub-bottom profiler penetration and higher resolution side-scan sonar imaging.Jim Chance, C&C Technologies (USA) Art Kleiner, C&C Technologies (USA)
02/07/2008C-Nav Global SBAS for Sub-decimeter Precise Point
 C-Nav's Global Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) capability with worldwide reach. Recent system modifications have resulted in further improvements to absolute positioning accuracy at the decimeter level. Precise Point Positioning performance, compared against long term International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) absolute coordinates for the global monitoring network, confirms the improvements.
5/7/2007 Deepwater Archaeology with Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology
  Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) have had a significant impact on underwater archaeology in the Gulf of Mexico. Increased use of AUV technology for natural resource surveys has increased deepwater shipwreck discoveries. With AUV data, archaeologists can document and interpret deepwater shipwreck sites with a higher degree of detail than possible with deeptow systems. Using examples from the Gulf of Mexico, this paper discusses the use of AUVs for deepwater archaeology, including survey methodologies, and data analysis techniques.
05/04/2007Groundtruthing AUV Contacts for Unexplored Ordnance in a Deepwater GeoHazard Assessment
 Presented at OTC 2007

Two of the latest directives from the Minerals Management Service indicate a growing concern about Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) located in close proximity to deepwater exploration and development sites within the Gulf of Mexico (NTLs 2006-G12 and 2007-G01) 1, 2. This paper describes a unique study that yielded project-specific, quantitative avoidance criteria and risk management analysis of UXO, identified during a routine geohazard survey. The ordnance was located with high-resolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) side scan sonar data outside one of seven known dumping zones, in approximately 3,000 feet of water.
12/22/2006Advances in AUV Remote-sensing Technology for Imaging
 This article appeared in the The Leading Edge, December 2006

Exploration geoscientists continue to make deepwater field discoveries at ever-increasing water depths around the world. Once these discoveries are sanctioned for development, headaches begin for the field development and pipeline engineers. With timelines for first oil or gas from these discoveries averaging less than three years, the need for high-resolution geophysical survey data required for the front-end engineering design (FEED) is paramount. The speed and efficiency with which autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can acquire survey data is vital to meeting deadlines for these projects. This paper provides a brief history, system overview, and planned sensor upgrades for AUVs developed by C & C Technologies. A brief discussion on a 3D AUV microseismic technique is presented.
12/15/2006Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mapping Reveals Coral Mound
 This article appeared in the GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 33, L23616, doi:10.1029/2006GL027734, 2006

To make progress in understanding the distribution and genesis of coral mounds in cold and dark water, maps of morphology and oceanographic conditions resolving features at the 1-10 m scale are needed. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) cruising 40 m above the seafloor surveyed a 48 km2 coral mound field in 600-800 m water depth at the base of slope of Great Bahama Bank. The AUV acquired 1-3 meter resolution acoustic backscatter and bathymetry together with current vectors, salinity, and temperature. The multibeam bathymetry resolved more than 200 coral mounds reaching up to 90 m height. Mound morphology is surprisingly diverse and mound distribution follows E-W oriented off-bank ridges. Bottom currents reverse every 6 hours indicating tidal flow decoupled from the north flowing surface current. The AUV data fill the gap between low-resolution surface-based mapping and visual observations on the seafloor, revealing the dynamic environment and spatial relationships of an entire coral mound field. Citation: Grasmueck, M., G. P. Eberli, D. A. Viggiano, T. Correa, G. Rathwell, and J. Luo (2006), Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) mapping reveals coral mound distribution, morphology, and oceanography in deep water of the Straits of Florida, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23616, doi:10.1029/2006GL027734.
06/27/2006Team Seeks USN UUV Work
 This article appeared in the May/June 2006 issue of Unmanned Systems and is displayed with permission.

General Atomics (GA), San Diego, CA, Kongsberg Underwater Technology (KUTI), Lynwood, WA, and C & C Technologies (C & C), Lafayette, LA have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to jointly develop Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUVs) for the U.S. military market.
06/01/2005Return to the U-166: Working Together to Meet the Challenges of Deepwater Archaeology
 Presented at Underwater Intervention, 2004

To meet the challenge of scientifically investigating a deepwater shipwreck, a research team made up of industry, academic, private, and government members came together in October 2003 for a second expedition to the German U-boat, U-166. The group consisted of marine archaeologists, microbiologists, oceanographers, surveyors, film makers, ROV operators, and consultants. The U-166 site lies in 1400 meters of water in the Mississippi Canyon Area of the Gulf of Mexico. The unique historical find was discovered in 2001 during a pipeline survey conducted by C & C Technologies, Inc. for BP Exploration and Production, Inc. and Shell International Exploration, Inc. NOAA's office of Ocean Exploration (OE) facilitated the new expedition, which combined the use of technology common to the oil and gas industry with archaeological mapping techniques and microbiology science.
04/07/2005Hydrographic Surveys to IHO Standards Using The Real-Time (RTG) Global Positioning System (GPS)
 The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) conducts hydrographic surveys in accordance with International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) S-44 hydrographic survey standards. Presently, under most circumstances, shore stations must be established for collecting tide information that is used to define the local vertical chart datum, derive tidal correctors to reduce soundings to the chart datum, and derive harmonic constituents for future tide predictions.
03/31/2005C-Nav Postional Reliability in a High Blockage and Multipath Environment
 This paper describes an experiment to test a technique referred to as L1Phase Navigation, or "L1PNav", which has been developed and integrated into the C-Nav GPS receiver engine algorithm to enhance positional estimation integrity. This technique, which is also designated "SureNav" by NavCom Technology, Inc., adjusts the weighting of carrier phase and code based navigation in order to maximize the robustness of the output position. A general introduction of the L1PNav technique is followed by an experiment in which C-Nav is concurrently tested in High Blockage/Multi-Path and Clear View Environments. The results and conclusions are presented.
10/22/2004Tidal Height Retrieval Using Globally Corrected GPS in the Canadian Arctic
 Presented at ION GNSS 2004, September 21-24, 2004 - Long Beach, California

The recent evolution of global Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS) networks has greatly increased the already high level of interest in GPS technologies by the hydrographic community. The aim of this paper is to evaluate one of these WADGPS systems, the C & C Technologies Globally Corrected GPS (GcGPS) C-Nav, as an instrument for tidal height retrieval in the Canadian Arctic. The C-Nav receiver was mounted aboard the Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) Amundsen for her 14-month over-wintering expedition in the Northwest Passage. C-Nav height data were collected in Franklin Bay, North West Territories, over February to April 2004. Data were collected over a 40-day period to ensure the capture of all significant wavelength tidal effects.
09/20/2004Discovering H.M.S. Arc Royal
 In November 1941 the aircraft carrier H.M.S. Ark Royal was returning from Malta, when it had been torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat Southeast of Gibraltar.  Its destruction was a devastating blow to the Royal Navy's power in the Mediterranean theatre of war and to the morale of the British people.  In October 2002, nearly sixty-one years after it was lost, the remains of the Ark Royal were identified on the bottom of the Mediterranean using C & C Technologies HUGIN 3000 AUV.
06/10/2004Run Silent, Run Deep...U.S. Military Missions for the Hugin UUV
 C&C Technologies is offering the U. S. Navy the opportunity to conduct sea trials of the Norway-developed Hugin 3000, a proven commercial Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) that will also see military service with the Norwegian Navy and others. The U.S. firm believes the Hugin 3000 UUV or a militarized Hugin variant can satisfy USN organic mine reconnaissance requirements.
06/01/2004High-resolution Geological AUV Survey Results Across a Portion of the Eastern Sigsbee Escarpment
 High-resolution geophysical data were acquired for an investigation across a portion of Sigsbee Escarpment using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV Hugin 3000), which allowed mapping of the seabed and near-seafloor features in detail and large two-dimensional data sets to be collected in a short time in deep water over rugged terrain. Complex seafloor structures are revealed in the survey area. These seafloor structures include a graben fault zone, rugged escarpment faces, slump deposits, and erosional furrows. Geological morphologies occurring in the survey area are associated with salt tectonics, gravitational driven failure, and ocean bottom-current activities.
05/01/2004Advances in Deepwater Pipeline Route Selection - A Gulf of Mexico Case Study
 The selection of pipeline routes and the location of the associated tie-in structures require detailed knowledge of the seabed conditions and shallow geology. The areas along the routes and regionally around the routes must be accurately surveyed. This is especially important for the complex geology and seabed topography found in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico.
02/05/2004AUV Sea Trials and Tribulations - 36 Months and 25,000 Kilometers Later - Was it Worth it?
 In 1999, the oil companies BP, Amoco, and Shell jointly published a document detailing the industry requirement for a survey AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) that stated: "For industry to adopt these vehicles, survey AUVs must reduce costs or be at least comparable to conventional surveys." Taking this to heart, C & C Technologies financed the development of such a vehicle with only one condition: If it worked, industry would guarantee 100 days of AUV utilization during the following two years. Likewise, if the development failed, industry would be under no obligation. BP agreed, so C & C placed an order with Kongsberg Simrad Maritime, A.S. for a Hugin 3000 AUV. Now, thirty-six months and 25,000 linear kilometers of surveying later, this revolutionary mapping tool remains predominantly idle.
01/12/2004GPS for Global Tidal Measurements
 Hydrographers require accurate three-dimensional positions of the survey vessel and typically use differing methods for resolving the horizontal and vertical components. GNSS, such as the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS), have become the dominant horizontal positioning system for hydrographic operations, whereas tidal estimation is the foremost method used in determining vertical positioning.The tidal estimation method integrates a water level measurement at a remote location with a predicted propagation of the tidal wave, to establish a sea surface level at the desired location.This paper investigates a new method using GNSS as an aid in improving these water level estimates on a global level.
11/10/2003Evaluation of Commercial Carrier Phase-Based WADGPS Services for Marine Applications
 The University of Southern Mississippi Hydrographic Science Research Center's (USM HSRC) primary goal was to evaluate how each system performed, with respect to criteria including: positioning solution availability, precision, accuracy, and integrity. No attempt was made to compare or contrast these products. The evaluation was performed within the context stringent marine application requirements provided by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) specifications for near-shore vertical positioning in hydrographic surveys.
11/07/2003Experimental Use of GPS Derived Altitude in Hydrographic Surveys
 C & C has developed C-Nav, a GPS based worldwide real-time precise point positioning system(1). This system is capable of providing a vertical accuracy of 0.24 +/- 0.04 meters at the 95% confidence level in real time in static testing [2]. The system is also capable of producing vertical accuracy of about 0.19 meters at the 95% confidence level during static testing when post processed with data from a monitoring station ~100 nm (nautical miles) away. These accuracies are sufficient for aiding in determining height above chart datum during a hydrographic survey, provided that additional variables associated with field use do not degrade significant performance. This experiment was performed to see how C-Nav height data could be used during an actual hydrographic survey.
07/09/2003AUV Surveys: Extending our Reach 24,000 Kilometers Later
 This paper describes the evolution of the first commercially successful surveying Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), which was developed by C & C Technologies, Inc., Lafayette, Louisiana in conjunction with Kongsberg Simrad, of Horten, Norway.
06/01/2003High-Resolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Geophysical Survey of a Large, Deep Water Pockmark Offshore Nigeria
 This paper presents results of a deepwater pockmark detailed investigation from a geophysical and geomorphologic point of view. AUV high-resolution results are compared to seabed and sub-seabed imagery from 3D exploration data, and provide new insights with regard to pockmark generation and fluid migration.
02/01/2003The SS Alcoa Puritan: Deepwter Discovery and Investigation
 For fifteen years it was thought that the Aloca Puritan had been found, but in 2001 C&C Technologies, while working for BP and Shell, discovered that the wreck thought to have been the Alcoa Puritan was actually the long sought after German U-boat, U-166. Marine archeologists surmissed that the U-166 was sunk by a naval patrol craft PC-566 shortly after the U-boat sank the passenger freighter Robert E. Lee. That discovery solved the mystery of what happened to the U-166, but posed the perplexing question of where was the Alcoa Puritan?
12/01/2002Elements of GPS Precise Point Positioning
 This thesis investigates Precise Point Positioning (PPP) using dual and singlefrequency pseudorange and carrier phase observations. Both the static and kinematic modes are investigated. The static PPP solution examples use six-hour data sets from four stations. The observations were made while Selective Availability (SA) was active and after it had been discontinued. The static solutions agree to within 10 cm with published coordinates or with solutions obtained from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) PPP Internet service. The kinematic solutions show a discrepancy of less than one meter, mostly around half a meter.
10/30/2002Starfire: A Global High Accuracy Differential GPS System
 StarFire was developed by NavCom Technology, Inc. (NavCom) and Ag Management Solutions (AMS), both components of John Deere and Company, and is operated by NavCom. StarFire provides high accuracy navigation with sub-decimeter horizontal accuracy almost anywhere in the world.
06/01/2002The New Technology Rewrites History: Unravelling the mystery of the U-166
 In early 2001, BP Exploration and Production, and Shell International and Production contracted C&C Technologies, Inc. to conduct a marine survey for the proposed Okeanos Gas Pipeline route, using their new HUGIN 3000 AUV. This state-of-the-art deep-water survey vehicle utilises a full array of survey instrucments to survey faster and more accurately than can conventional deep-tow survey systems. Through the use of this new AUV technology a startling discovery was made that helped unravel an intriguing historical mystery in the Gulf of Mexico.
05/09/2002High-Resolution AUV Surveys of the Eastern Sigsbee Escarpment
 Recent oil and gas exploration efforts have met with success in the deepwater environment along the Sigsbee Escarpment in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. The topography of the Sigsbee is steep and irregular with numerous faults and slumps occurring on the Escarpment face. The complex topography is challenging for the collection of high-resolution geophysical data. Engineering quality survey data for the installation of export pipelines, infield flowlines and production facilities is needed. BP Exploration and Production Inc. (BP) recognized the limitations of the current survey technology and put forth a push in the industry for the development of a deepwater, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) survey platform. A commitment for state-of-the-art survey technology by BP resulted in C & C Technologies, Inc. (C & C) teaming with Kongsberg Simrad to develop an AUV platform for the deployment of high-resolution survey instrumentation capable of surveying to a maximum depth of 3,000 meters. An overview of the system, data processing and data examples from missions completed across the Sigsbee Escarpment are presented in this paper.
05/09/2002The Discovery of U-166: Rewrites History with New Technology
 During World War II, Hitler sent several of Germany's Uboats to the Gulf of Mexico to conduct warfare on merchant shipping and halt petroleum shipments. In less than a year, fifty-six merchant vessels were sunk and several others were severely damaged. During that entire operation only one Uboat was lost in the Gulf of Mexico. That U-boat was the U- 166. Since 1942 the U-166 was thought to have been sunk by the U.S. Coast Guard south of Isle Dernieres, Louisiana in the South Timbalier Area. Numerous surveys have crossed the area, but no trace of the U-166 was ever identified until recently.
05/01/2002Unraveling the Mystery
 Last year, British Petroleum (BP) and Shell International contracted C&C Technologies, Inc. (C&C) to conduct a marine survey for the proposed Okeanos Gas Pipeline route using C&C's new HUGIN 3000 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). This state-of-the-art deepwater survey vehicle utilizes a full array of survey instruments while surveying faster and more accurately than coventional deep-tow survey systems. Through the use of this new technology a startling discovery was made that has helped unravel an intriguing historical mystery in the Gulf of Mexico.
01/01/2002New Technology, the AUV and the Potential in Oilfield Maritime Archaeology
 High speed sonar and high resolution multibeam have had a enormous impact on how surveys are conducted in the oil, gas, and cable industry. But the most significant development has been the recent introduction of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle or AUV for deepwater exploration. The use of these untethered systems is setting a new standard for underwater surveying in the oil, gas, and cable industry and will in the near future have a significant impact on how deepwater archaeological surveys are conducted.
11/26/2001A Collaborative Effort to Meet New Zealand's Mapping Requirements
 The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Limited integrated a 30kHz Kongsberg Simrad EM-300 multibeam echosounder on their research ship, the R/V Tangaroa to help meet the mapping and charting requirements of Land Information New Zealand and to support NIWA's science and consulting activities. Installation of the hull-mounted multibeam system was performed during a seven-day vessel dry-docking in November 2000. The EM -300, leased to NIWA by C & C Technologies, was put through a series of stringent Calibration and Acceptance Tests by LINZ prior to its performance of hydrographic charting in the Western Ross Sea of Antarctica.
10/01/2001Deepwater AUV Experiences
 In August 1999, C & C Technologies placed an order with Kongsberg Simrad for a HUGIN 3000 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for operations worldwide. C & C's AUV team worked with Simrad during the development, and the system was completed in November 2000. The 3000-meter rated vehicle was successfully used to perform several deep-water projects in the Gulf of Mexico.
9/18/2001 C-Nav: A Globally Corrected DGPS System
 C & C Technologies, Inc., GPS Services Group has embarked on a program to provide globally corrected GPS (GcGPS) positioning services for the hydrographic and offshore oil field exploration, survey and construction industries.
8/1/2001 U-Boats in the Gulf of Mexico Unraveling the Mystery of the U-166
 In January 2001, C&C Technologies, Inc. conducted a deep-water pipeline survey for British Petroleum (BP) Amoco and Shell International Exploration & Production, Inc. in the vicinity of the reported location of the Robert E. Lee.

Upon completion of the offshore work, the data from the archaeological survey was reviewed by C&C's Marine Archaeologists. As they began analyzing the data the archaeologist relized that the debris scatter identified as the Alcoa Puritan did not match the characteristics of the 6,759-ton freighter, but closely corresponded to the dimensions of the U-166 (252 feet in length and 22 feet wide), which was the only German U-boat lost in the Gulf of Mexico during World War II.
06/08/2001New Technology Unravels the Mystery of the U-166
 C & C conducted a detailed HUGIN 3000 survey to more fully document the shipwreck of the passenger freighter Robert E. Lee, lost to the U-166 in July 1942, and to further investigate an area of wreck debris. This debris, to the east of the Robert E. Lee, was determined to be the remains of the German submarine U-166, the only U-boat lost in the Gulf of Mexico.
04/03/2001Scotian Slope Mapping Project
 Copyright 2001, Offshore Technology Conference
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2001 Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, April 30 - May 3, 2001. This paper was selected for presentation by the OTC Program Committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology Conference or its officers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Offshore Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented.
01/01/2001Objective Based Dynamic Navigation Planning
 C-Nav's Global Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) capability with worldwide reach. Recent system modifications have resulted in further improvements to absolute positioning accuracy at the decimeter level. Precise Point Positioning performance, compared against long term International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) absolute coordinates for the global monitoring network, confirms the improvements.
09/28/2000The Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV)
 Detailed surveys are required in deep water to avoid potential hazards and to provide for the construction and development of offshore oil leases. Unfortunately, data acquired with existing technology are expensive and often questionable in accuracy. To address this problem, C & C Technologies Inc. (C & C) of Lafayette, Louisiana, USA has contracted with Kongsberg Simrad for the construction of a HUGIN 3000 deepwater Autonomous UnderwaterVehicle (AUV). The HUGIN 3000's survey sensors will include multibeam bathymetry, side scan sonar and subbottom profiler.
8/31/2000 NOS RTK Team Final Report
 Upon the recommendation of the National Ocean Service (NOS) Survey Team, a Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) Requirements Team was created (see ATTACHMENT 1). The RTK Requirements Team (the RTK Team") was task to document requirements for the application of RTK global positioning system (GPS) technology in support of hydrography, tides, and related NOS navigation missions and programs1. The NOS Survey team helped develop a charter for the RTK Team (see ATTACHMENT 2). The charter specifies that the purpose of the RTK Team is to investigate and report on applications of RTK GPS to support [chart-quality hydrographic surveying]"2. Here, chart-quality hydrographic surveying ("hydrography") means meeting, or exceeding, applicable NOS hydrographic survey specifications3 and International Hydrographic Organization standards4. This is the final report of the RTK Team investigations into the use of kinematic GPS methods for NOS hydrography.
05/01/2000A High-Resolution AUV Survey
 Detailed geophysical surveys are required in deep water to avoid potential hazards and to provide for the construction and development of offshore oil leases. Unfortunately, data obtained with existing technology can be expensive and often data accuracy may be questionable.
04/03/2000Reducing Deepwater Survey Costs: The Impact of Contrasting Technologies
 Detailed surveys are required in deepwater to avoid potential hazards and to provide for the construction and development of offshore oil leases. Current survey alternatives include the Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and the Deep Tow system. Both can be expensive and inefficient
10/01/1999Autonomous Bathymetry Survey Systems
 This paper describes the Autonomous Bathymetry Survey System (AutoSurvey), a system that provides automation of swath sonar bathymetric surveys. This system enables faster surveying of an area through environmentally adaptive techniques while ensuring adequate coverage and data quality. AutoSurvey assesses data quality and coverage in real-time and generates next-trackline waypoints based on actual system performance. The need for real-time performance assessment is discussed. A primary factor considered is the effect of the environment on swath bathymetry system performance, which is difficult to predict a priori. The system's features, design and implementation are discussed in this paper. Simulation and sea trial results are presented, as well as an analysis of the system's ability to reduce survey time.
8/11/1999 Mapping the Panama Canal
 C & C Technologies, Inc. (C & C) recently conducted a comprehensive multibeam survey of the Panama Canal utilizing the Simrad EM-950 multibeam echosounder. Operating at 95kHz.,the EM-950 provides hydrographic data and geometrically correct sonar imagery at a rate of up to 240 soundings per second while ensonifying a sector of up to 7.4 times the water depth. Operating depths range from water's-edge to 500 meters with accuracies on the order of 15 centimeters or 0.3% of the water depth.
05/03/1999A Synergistic Combination of Technologies
 Exploration and production in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico is hampered by an absence of existing survey data. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, NOAA ventured to map the deep Gulf of Mexico with multibeam sonar. Unfortunately, this visionary project lacked both the funding for completion and the technology to provide the survey accuracy and resolution presently desired.
01/01/1999Two-Boat Shoot
 The oil and gas industry continues to push exploration and production efforts further and further offshore in order to reap the profits that deep-water reservoirs offer. Water depth limits on production in the Gulf of Mexico have increased to over 1,500 meters with many more prospects lying in deeper depths. The industry move out beyond the shelf-break has created the need for accurate and efficient deep-water surveys for site assessments and route surveys. Many of the most favorable export routes extending from deep-water production sites are taken, creating flowline bottlenecks" around hazardous seafloor zones. Swath bathymetry systems can cover wide areas of the seafloor in short periods of time and allow the most favorable route to be designed prior to conducting a detailed side scan sonar survey.
10/01/1998Meeting the Demand
 Cable route planners and surveyors are under increasing pressures flowed down from cable system purchasers to meet compressed lead times from system launch, through implementation to system RFS. This paper addresses some of the responses by planners and surveyors to these demands. In particular the paper focuses on the following key points:  Pre-survey planning and route selection processes. Advances in route selection and surveying methods.  Expediting the flow of information to suppliers and installers.  Providing fast track burial assessment.  Restrictions and limitations to meeting the demands.
01/01/1997Autonomous Bathymetric Surveying
 This paper discusses an initial implementation of sensor performance based survey control using a multibeam bathymetric system. The goal of this work is the automation of survey navigation and sensor control utilizing actual vice predicted response of the survey system. The implementation of the techniques discussed in this paper utilized the Naval Research Laboratory's ORCA vessel, a semi-autonomous air-breathing submersible vessel. The approaches attempted are discussed and results from the first at-sea test of these techniques are presented. During the at-sea test data from the multibeam bathymetry system was processed and gridded in real-time, and this data was then utilized to generate the next navigation trackline for the defined survey area. Sensor performance based control, even with a relatively simple implementation, was seen to compensate extremely well for actual data coverage.
6/1/1993 New Generation Mapper
 C & C Technologies was conceived with the goal of providing accurate, cost-effective positioning and hydrographic services to the public and private sector. The development of data collecting and processing software, coupled with the introduction of C & C's recently acquired EM-950 shallow water multibeam bathymetry and imagery system, makes this an actuality. This system is presently in operation on a 26 foot survey launch for rapid deployment, but can be quickly transferred to any vessel of opportunity.



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